Theology of children

Preached on: Sunday 4th September 2022
The sermon text is given below or can be download by clicking on the “PDF” button above. Additionally, you can download the PowerPoint PDF by clicking here22-09-04 Message PPT slides multi pages.
Bible references: Genesis 15:1-6 and Romans 4:1-16
Location: Brightons Parish Church

Sermon keypoints:
– Theology of children
– Sacraments: signs and seals of God’s promise
– Baptism and the response of faith

Let us take a moment to pray before we think about God’s Word:

Come Holy Spirit and soften our hearts to the Word of God.
Come Holy Spirit to mature and strengthen our faith.
Come Holy Spirit with power and deep conviction, for we ask it in Jesus’ name. Amen.

We’re in this new series on Covenants and sacraments and last week we began by exploring a range of scriptures that point to and give a basis to our tradition that we understand children to share in the covenants, and this week builds on that and we also get onto talking about the sacraments, particularly the sacrament of baptism and I must admit that I come before you with a degree of trepidation, apprehension, a measure of internal trembling because today, we touch upon holy things, holy things. I’m also aware that we touch upon things that we might see differently upon and I dearly hope that we maintain unity through all. I’m not wanting to do otherwise. I’m aware I can easily get this wrong. I’m trying prayerfully not to, because I’m still on a journey, I’m still seeking clarity, I’m still asking questions and so, really, I’m sharing with you as far as I’ve got in my understanding of things. Let me reiterate what I said last week, I’m not necessarily trying to convince you to change rather, I was seeking, through this series together, as a measure of assurance, hopefully, that the transition we find ourselves in, the changes that might come in the months ahead, are biblically grounded and, if we are convinced, then to have even a measure of confidence about what we propose to do as we understand the place and inclusion of children within the life of the church, but also within the covenants. And so within access to the sacraments I said last week at the very end that I’m sure last week raised questions for us, questions I didn’t have time to get into and I will seek to engage with them this week and next, though I’ll give you a heads-up, I might not give you the answer you’re looking for and partly the reason for that is, I think we need to accept there’s a degree of mystery here, and I say that because what we’re going to get into is a Theology of Children really. I’m not sure that scripture always asks the questions we do and I think partly the reason for that is, within scripture I increasingly see that thread of covenant, of covenant theology woven in the scriptures and so it assumes various conclusions or reaches various conclusions because of that theology and so, as I say, it doesn’t raise the questions we do, it doesn’t even use the language that we do at times, particularly when it comes to our children.

And so, at the heart, as we think about the place of children, about the meaning of the sacraments, about the right and proper recipients of the sacraments, baptism and communion, at the heart of it is our theology of children and particularly the theology of children of believers because that’s what the scripture addresses and that can be very emotive.

And so, I first want us to focus on that and then from there go on to think about baptism and what baptism means in our tradition, which might be different from where you’re coming from, if you’ve come from another tradition and so, I want to take us to a range of different places where I see this thread of covenant woven through the scriptures.

First off, and we’re going to go into the Old Testament to begin, to that point in the Old Testament story where David has committed adultery with Bathsheba and a son was born to them but that son dies and in this, probably the hours or days following that, in his season of grief David says this ‘Can I bring him back again? (the answer being no) ‘I will go to him but he will not return to me.’ I will go to him but he will not return to me. We see here in David’s words that he has a theology, an understanding, a belief in the eternal life, that there’s life beyond death and that this child, he has lost, he will go to be with. There’s no question around that in his mind. It is sure, guaranteed. What gives him such confidence? Well, the only thing it can be is the covenant, that children shared in the covenant.

And, if you don’t know my story, then this is not hypothetical for us. This is not a lecture in an ivory tower because, just ten days ago, Gill and I marked the seventh anniversary of our first son. This is not hypothetical. So, if children are not in the covenant and then they don’t somehow share in God’s saving provision then there’s really very little comfort.

Last week I quoted Wayne Grudem a number of times and his Systematic Theology is excellent in many ways but I went back to it this week as I approached this issue and this idea of trying to understand the theology of children and, literally, there is scant, scant comfort or hope given about our children. It’s almost a bit of a wish rather than any confidence.

So, as we think through the place of children, we do need to think about that dynamic because no one shares in the life eternal except through Jesus.

So, what about the children of believers? Or, let’s go into the New Testament where in Ephesians Paul is writing to the church and not only does he address the whole body of believers, he talks to children saying ‘Obey your parents and The Lord, for this is right’ and he goes on to quote a law from the Old Testament. Then he addresses fathers, really parents in general, ‘Do not exasperate your children instead, bring them up in the training and instruction of The Lord.’ Now, again, if children are outside the covenant and somehow, they don’t share in the things of the Kingdom what are we trying to instruct them in and train them in? Because, if it’s trying to follow the ways of Jesus, if it’s trying to live out for example the Sermon on the Mount, as we’ve just looked at, then all you’re teaching them, all you’re doing to them, is putting a millstone around their neck. And here’s why: not one of us, adult or child, can walk in the ways of the Kingdom without the Spirit’s help. Various scriptures around that. So, if we are trying to teach our children to walk in the way of The Lord, and they have no chance to do so because they don’t belong in the covenant, it’s just a millstone round their neck. And it goes into various other aspects. It should not only reshape our thinking around what we do in Sunday School, it should reshape our thinking around the songs we sing or the prayers we teach them. Over the summer we sang a song at the early service ‘This little light of mine, I’m going to let it shine’, if they don’t have the light of Jesus, they shouldn’t be singing that song. We shouldn’t be teaching them to pray in the name of Jesus because, when we say in the name of Jesus, Amen, it’s not some magic words to get what we want. When we say in the name of Jesus, we’re saying before God, I don’t come in my own merit, I’ve not earned this, I don’t even deserve to be heard, but only because of Jesus, because I share in His righteousness can I come before you my Holy God with confidence. The writer to Hebrews says ‘with confidence, with boldness because of Jesus.’ No child who’s outside the covenant can pray in Jesus’ name and genuinely say those words. If children are outside the covenant, the only things we should teach them are God and His character, the history of His dealings with God’s people, that they’re a bunch of sinners, they need forgiven and that forgiveness is provided by Jesus and they need to repent, and until they do so, well, you can follow the dots in that line.

I think that is literally where it leads us if we follow the logic of our theology of children through, but covenant theology says differently. They’re part of the covenant and so they somehow share in the things of the Kingdom and we can instruct them from the earliest of ages to walk in the ways of The Lord.

And let’s go on to one of the gospels. Jesus says ‘Let the little children come to me and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these.’ It’s interesting that Matthew omits what the other gospel writers include, where He basically alludes to having child-like faith. Matthew excludes that. Why? Well, Matthew is writing to a Jewish audience, predominantly, a Jewish audience, who would what? Understand the covenants and that children are included in the covenants. And so, Jesus says ‘The kingdom of heaven belongs to these children.’ You’re bringing to me babes in arms and beyond, because they share in the covenant already. Children do not share in the covenant because they’re children, none, no one does by right of birth or anything just by being a child. We share in the covenant because God invites us to be part of that covenant and He includes His children. And I had not seen that until this week, until I was pondering how to explain this and how to give us assurance that there is this thread of covenant theology across the scriptures, it’s there in the words of Jesus as well. I think often when we come to a theology of children, we develop quite an individualistic, western perspective on it and so, when we raise questions about children, about their place within God’s saving purposes, I want their place within the covenant. I’m not sure scripture answers the questions as directly as we’d like or in the language that we’d like and I have avoided certain language and avoided answering your questions a bit directly because I’m not sure the Scriptures do it but they give us these hints that children are included in the covenant and it’s there much more plainly in what we looked at last week, and maybe our forefathers, in the reformed faith, got into a bit of trickiness and developed very complicated systems because they felt a pressure to answer the questions rather than except there’s a degree of mystery. I don’t know how it happened, I don’t know exactly what it means but, as I look at the thread across the Scriptures, increasingly, increasingly I’m convinced of children sharing in the covenant.

And so, what is your theology of children? Are they inside or are they outside? They might come to church and we might say that, yes, you’re part of the church, but really we’re just saying they’re part of the organization, the community, they don’t really belong to God’s people until they’ve confirmed that, expressed that in some way, until they can give the answer you’re looking for. And so, I asked you to follow through the logic of your theology and what would give you comfort in the face of grief, what would guide you and how to disciple our children if you don’t hold to this? I’m not saying you have to hold it, I’m not saying that but might we create space to say ‘I can see where you’re coming from, Scott’, you can see where others are coming from. I might not agree to that, I can’t get to that place yet, but we can have space for one another?

Now, what I’m outlining is part of the tradition we are part of but it’s not just about sacraments, it’s also just not about covenants, it’s also about sacraments and in our tradition, we have two sacraments, baptism and communion. And communion we’ll celebrate in this morning and we’ll think a little bit about that when it comes but much more next week. Today the focus is really on baptism. We might be wondering ‘Well, why do we use the words ‘sacraments’? What is a sacrament?’ because it’s not a Biblical word. But then again, neither is Trinity so, just because it’s not in the Bible doesn’t mean we don’t use it. It points to something, it’s shorthand for something. John Calvin, in his writing, that great reformer said ‘A sacrament is an outward sign by which The Lord seals on our consciences the promises of His good will towards us, in order to sustain the weakness of our faith.’ So, sacrament is an outward sign, a visible pointing to a promise, to give us assurance, greater reassurance, greater confidence and a promise, and we’ll get to that, what that promises in a moment when we’re thinking about baptism.

If we’re trying to think ‘Well, what happens in baptism or what is the symbolism of baptism conveying?’ When you turn to the New Testament scriptures it’s not as clear as you might think. It’s not as clear as you might think and I want to give you a few examples of that, or one example really. Romans chapter 6 verse 3 Paul says a little after what we looked at this morning ‘Don’t you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus, were baptized into his death.’ There are three ways, at least, of interpreting this verse and the first two I would argue are wrong.

So, for example, number one, you might read this and say ‘Well clearly this is saying when we’re baptized, that’s when we’re saved, that’s when we’re baptized into Jesus and sharing His death, that’s when we’re saved.’ And so, maybe we should say that baptism saves you. When, either as a child or an adult, that’s when you’re saved based on one interpretation of this verse. However, that would be slightly problematic for all the people who are Christians but never been baptized. Or take the thief on the cross, hanging on the cross beside Jesus on Calvary’s hill. Is he baptized before he was saved? And Jesus says to him ‘You’ll share this day in the kingdom of God.’ Clearly not so. That interpretation cannot be right. Baptism does not save us.

Interpretation number two, maybe more of a kind of Baptist interpretation we might say or that broad kind of line of thought, that this is talking about baptism portraying our dying with Jesus and our being raised to life with Jesus. And, in part, we can understand that symbolism however that’s not what Paul says. He says ‘all of us who were baptized.’ So, something happened to us. It’s not just portraying something. Something happened in a baptism and we were baptized into His death and every Baptist is going to react and push against that interpretation because of problem number one. Baptism doesn’t save us. So, this verse is not about the act of baptism, it’s rather pointing to the spiritual dynamics of what happens when we come to faith. That when we come to faith it is like being baptized and we’ll talk about what baptism is in a second. And so, it’s that spiritual metaphor that Paul’s getting at. He’s not actually talking about the act of baptism and there are a number of verses, particularly in the epistles, where Paul talks about baptism, but he’s not talking about the act of baptism, he’s talking about what happened when you came to faith, it was like being baptized, in that moment, it’s what he’s getting at. And so, we have to be careful about the text we use to understand what happens in baptism and what the symbolism of baptism means and, if we make baptism about our faith, about our response of faith, it also leads into other problems because then, in one part you could argue it’s more about us and our response than what we argue for in reformed faith, where it’s everything’s to the glory of God.

There are other dynamics and other issues but I don’t have time to get into them but just some food for thought. So, what is baptism symbolizing. Well, in Acts we read of this and Paul is recounting some of his story and someone said to Paul, ‘Get up, be baptized and wash your sins away, calling on his name again.’ Baptism doesn’t save so that’s not what this verse is saying, but, clearly, baptism is a symbolism of sins being washed away through Jesus. It’s speaking of our spiritual need and of that need being met through Jesus, The Lord. And, you know, that’s the very same thing that circumcision was trying to communicate. Paul, in the passage we read today, said ‘Abraham received circumcision as a sign and a seal.’ There’s that language of John Calvin, a sign and a seal, ‘of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. He is the father of all who believe but have not been circumcised in order that righteousness might be credited to them.’ We saw in the passage in Genesis that, right, Abraham was credited with righteousness because he believed God, and we know from last week, that is in chapter 17, we get the sign of circumcision so he’s made right with God, he’s forgiven, he’s cleansed of his sins before he ever gets circumcision. That’s what Paul’s argument is here. And so, circumcision was a sign and a seal that righteousness, God will give righteousness, on the basis of faith. That’s the promise John Calvin spoke of. A promise, that’s the promise that circumcision pointed to and because circumcision and baptism are conveying the same thing, that’s what baptism conveys as well. They’re both talking about being forgiven, made right with God, of being washed of your sin, based on the promise of God to forgive, on the basis of faith and they point to that internal need and God’s promise to do so, to forgive, to make you right in faith.

And so, sacraments are signs and seals of God’s promises pointing to God’s promise and of our need. In our tradition baptism is not our response of faith, baptism is pointing to our need and God’s promise to meet that need when there’s faith and actually, then, children and adults in our tradition are baptized for the same reason. They’re not. But an adult is not baptized because of their response of faith, just like our children, when we baptize, we’re saying there is this need, a spiritual need to be made right with God and He will, He has promised to meet that need. He extends that promise to us and to our children and so baptism is more about speaking to us, God speaking to us, than us speaking to God. And maybe, that’s new for you. Maybe you’ve never heard it explained that way because, to be honest, prior to I did all this research, neither had I. Even in my training I don’t think anyone had conveyed it in quite those terms. And, as I say, I’m not convincing you to change your mind upon that, but trying to help you understand where others of us are coming from. But I think there are benefits in viewing baptism this way because the focus is less on ourselves and more on God, more on His promise which is given, not only to us, but to our children.

But some of you will be saying ‘Well, what about faith? Where’s faith play a part in all this.’ And our tradition does not deny the place of faith, it affirms the place of faith. That faith is still central. It’s initiated by faith, a parent, parents come with a child, a babe in arms, to say, I have faith in this promise of God to meet the needs of my child, that somehow, by grace, they are included in the covenant. I don’t know how. I don’t, can’t explain that there’s mystery but, but that’s what Your Word shows. Lord, I come in faith.’ But as a child grows, we call forth a response of faith, to say, ‘Own this! You’re in it, own it. You’ve got the membership but you need to share in that. You need to own it. There’s no point in just having the card to whatever and never going there,’ if you want to put it in such crass term, ‘you need to own it, respond in faith, accept the gift.’ But, as with all of God’s covenants, there’s not only the gift, there’s also the obligation.

I was having a really great chat with one of our members this week and he was emphasizing to me the need for holiness and the response of faith, to live in holiness. The blessings of Jesus don’t come just as blessings, there are also obligations, there’s a call to holiness. Do you know that brothers and sisters? There are obligations as well as blessings.’ And the same is true for our children. And so, we train them in the ways of the Kingdom. We help them understand the things of The Lord and to grow in that and to walk in that. We call forth faith.

But there is another side, a side we’ve often avoided, I think, a side which we’ve shied away from and which has probably meant why our pews are more empty than they maybe should be, of all those children who were baptized in infancy but maybe, now, have walked away because we haven’t shared the other side. We’ve shared the love of God, we’ve shared the Good News, we’ve shared that they can be forgiven through Jesus. All those good things and blessings but there’s another side. There’s a warning and consequences, an obligation and we find it in a number of places within the New Testament. Paul again, writing in Romans, has a picture, describes a picture in chapter 11 of an olive tree and he uses this picture of the olive tree to speak of Israel often, because the Old Testament did that as well, and he says that the people of God are this olive tree but some did not respond in faith, they trusted more in circumcision, they trusted more in their nationality and ethnicity, they didn’t respond in faith to the sign that was given and God has actually broken them off, cut them off from the olive tree,,
and he says then that you’ve been grafted in, new Gentile believers, which includes us to this very day, because I don’t think any of us are Jewish, we are those Gentile believers and we have been grafted in he says in romans 11. But he goes on to say this ‘Consider therefore the kindness and sternness of God. Sternness to those who fell away,’ those who were cut off, because they didn’t respond in faith ‘but kindness to you because you have responded in faith,’ and you’ve been grafted in, ‘provided that you continue in his kindness. Otherwise, you also will be cut off.’ And that warning, that obligation to continue in faith, to persevere in faith until the very end, until we share in the Kingdom of Heaven fully, it’s there in Hebrews. Too many verses to utilize and quote today but go and look. That warning that if we take lightly the death of Jesus, if we shun the death of Jesus and turn from Jesus, if we trample underfoot the blood of Jesus, then then, we become a covenant breaker and we’re not sharing that covenant anymore. And I’m not saying that your children who were baptized and are no longer part of church, I’m not saying that they’ve reached that point because only we’ll know before the judgment seat of God but that might be the trajectory they’re on, because we haven’t warned them, we haven’t said, you’re in the kingdom, you’re in the covenant, it’s all of grace by faith, it’s nothing to do with you, it’s not magic because of baptism, you’re in there, respond in faith but keep on in faith because of the warnings we read in Scripture and we’ve ignored that, we’ve turned from that because it’s hard, it’s really hard, and I think of members of my family who are no longer children and I’m their child, and I think ‘Well, where are you in the faith?’ Maybe I need to take this on board and I need to go and have a conversation with those members of my family saying ‘Look, look have you turned from Jesus?’

So, faith is everywhere in this tradition. It’s initiated by faith or calls forth a response of faith and there’s an ongoing faith, both for our children but for us as well, that faith till the very end and Paul has various, numerous various references to that too. Go on and read the Scriptures afresh and you’ll see it dotted throughout. Because faith is central and our tradition does not deny that faith in God and His promise, a promise He extends to all, including our children, so that by grace, unearned, unmerited we share in His covenant and saving provision.

This is our God our glorious, loving, faithful, good God, that I’m more passionate about than ever, because I see this in the Scriptures, I want you to share in that confidence or at least that reassurance, that we’re not against one another, we’re not wanting disunity but that we can understand and make space for one another and it’s all to the glory of God now and forevermore. Amen.

What is God up to?

Preached on: Sunday 28th August 2022
The sermon text is given below or can be download by clicking on the “PDF” button above. Additionally, you can download the PowerPoint PDF by clicking here 22-08-28 Message PPT slides multi pages.
Bible references: Genesis 17:1-2, 7, 9-14 & Titus 2:11-14
Location: Brightons Parish Church

Sermon keypoints:
– God’s plan: a people of His own
– God’s plan: old and new covenants
– God’s plan: the place of children

Let us take a moment to pray before we think about God’s word. Let’s pray together:

Come Holy Spirit and soften our hearts to the word of God that we might receive what You have for us today.
Come Holy Spirit and reveal to us the plan of God.
Come Holy Spirit with power and deep conviction, for we ask it in Jesus’ name. Amen.

I’m going to put three statements up in a moment and I want to ask you, in a moment, to turn to your neighbor and decide which one of them or which couple of them are true. Okay. The statements are:
• baptism saves a child
• infant baptism is a relic of Christendom
• sharing in communion requires cognition – understanding.
So, baptism saves a child infant; baptism is a relic of Christendom – when the church was at its height and such like; and, sharing in communion requires cognition, understanding. I’m going to give you 30 seconds and if you feel up to it, turn to your neighbor and see what you come up with. Which of these is true? Over to you.

So, okay, sounds like I could have left you to talk about that for some time but if you’ve, if you want to, you can obviously debate that over tea and coffee after the service. But, in my understanding of things, I would say that none of these statements is true and we’ll get into those issues over the next two weeks. Now, at the outset of this series, I’m going to put up front that I know that we are quite a broad congregation theologically and some of these issues, particularly around baptism, have actually split the church and I’m certainly not wanting that however, I hope that, from the series, that wherever you stand on this, and you might be someone who holds to more a kind of believer’s baptism, a credo baptism, that you think someone should only be baptized when they respond in faith themselves, that could be as a child but not as an infant, not before you’re able to make your own choice, that might be you and I have people that I highly respect that hold that position and this series is not about persuading you to change that position necessarily however, we need to understand the tradition that Brightons Parish Church finds itself within, a reformed presbyterian tradition, what is it we understand about God’s covenants and God’s sacraments, that we, that might then guide our practice, our life as a congregation, particularly, as I said earlier, as we think about allowing children to be more proactively included. And so, I hope this series will bring greater unity, not disunity, and again, another thing to put out at the start is that this is all a journey for each of us and it has been a journey for me too. A journey that has felt like a maze at times. i grew up in the Church of Scotland. I was baptized as an infant. I would say I really came to faith when I was 19, although there was always a belief in God over those years, but when I came to own a personal faith in Jesus, I was very, very frustrated with the denomination, with my congregation, probably even with my own family, and part of the reason is because I cannot remember one person having ever told me the Gospel that Jesus died for me because God loves me and I need to own that for myself for me to be forgiven and be part of what God is doing in the world. I had not heard that and so, when I came to own that I was frustrated, I was annoyed, I was upset that that hadn’t been done and I attributed that lack of sharing to nominalism. I saw, within the church, of people saying they were Christians or even coming to church where there seemed to be no faith, no follow-through on what was being taught and it was simply a tick box exercise for a lot of people. That I saw, or at least I thought that way. The youth of me was rather more judgmental than I am just now. And I blamed some of that nominalism also on infant baptism, that too many people thought ‘Well, if I get my child baptized, get them dunked, get them wetted, get them christened – I never use the word christened, it’s not in the Bible, so I’m not going to use it, baptism, infant baptism – so, because of that practice, because of the misunderstanding around that practice, I attributed that to a lot of nominalism. ‘Well, my wean’s been done. Job done! Don’t need to turn up at church anymore.’ That’s how it felt and appeared to me and so as I grew in faith over those early years, I came to hold myself to believers-baptism, that you should only get baptized when you can respond in faith. That would deal with all the issues that are wrong with the Church of Scotland, or so I thought. And, actually, in my early 20s I was part of a church where I was training to be a youth worker where they didn’t believe in infant baptism and I chose to get baptized again which I’m never going to do now as a minister. I would not offer that. I would not say yes to that, but I did at that time.

And then, God has a sense of humor and he calls me into the Church of Scotland, calls me into ministry as part of the Church of Scotland and I, as part of that discernment process, I had to wrestle with ‘Can I ascribe to this? Can I be open to this? Is there underpin an understanding that is okay for this? Can it be justified from the Scriptures?’ And, eventually, I came to a point of acceptance but still with a measure of discomfort, confusion even, and, I must admit, I’ve even had that over the last three and a half years as a minister until this summer. Because of the request of the Kirk Session, I’ve done much more digging into this than I’ve ever done before and two books, in particular, that no one had ever pointed out to me before have been so helpful. One book is ‘The fulfillment of the promises of God: An explanation of covenant theology’ which is a branch of systematic theology and ‘The case for covenantal infant baptism.’ These books have been so helpful, bringing things that I’d never come across, never thought about and so I’m actually now at the point of being much more convinced of those arguments but also just being more confident and passionate about God’s plans and purposes and the place of children within that. Now, so let me repeat, we’re all on a journey. I’m on a journey still. I don’t have all the answers to this and I know that three sermons is not going to cut it for everybody. You might have more questions and I’m willing to engage with those questions, I just asked for some grace as we wrestle with something that can be quite tricky and we can have very different perspectives and, at times, it’s going to be maybe a little bit heavy, and some things might go in one ear and out the other, but I encourage you to try and come back to it. Maybe re-watch the sermon on our website or Youtube Channel. If you don’t have internet at home we will get you either a CD a DVD or a printed copy of the sermon, so we can cover everybody’s needs. So, whatever you need, if you want to go over it again, just ask because this stuff is actually so important, so important.

Beginning the journey then, over these next few weeks, let me ask this question – What is God up to? I mean overall. What is God up to? What is His goal? What are His saving purposes? If we were to put it that way. Because, at the beginning of the Bible, the book of Genesis, at the very start, we see that God creates and within that creation He makes humanity unique amongst all creation. He makes them in His image. That God can then relate to them in a very personal way. And we understand from scripture and theology that God does this because, as a God who is trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, He wishes to lavish His love upon humanity because God is community, as trinity and so He makes another community, and, within that perfect community of Trinity, there is perfect love, and perfect love just desires to lavish itself upon others. We know that with our own children, with our grandchildren, children in our church, we just want to share that love with them. Well, imagine being a perfect being with perfect love, at the overflow of that love He creates and He creates humanity to be recipients of that love. But then, we rebel. Adam and Eve sin and the fall creates a whole host of issues and problems within creation.

Theologian Wayne Grudem who doesn’t hold to infant baptism, he’s a Baptist writer, he says this, ‘The rest of scripture after the story of the fall in Genesis 3 is the story of God working out in history the amazing plan of redemption whereby sinful people could come into fellowship with Himself.’ So, we have the fall, and the rest of scripture, you can see, is a story, not just the story but there is a story there, a thread of a story of what God is doing to bring about a plan, to bring us back into relationship with Himself, that He can lavish this love upon us. And we see that in our passages today we read, God’s saying to Abraham ‘I will establish my covenant to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.’ I’m your God Abraham. I’m coming into relationship with you, and you and your descendants are going to be my people. And then, what do we find Paul saying to Titus and in the letter, he writes he says of Jesus ‘Jesus, who gave himself’, who came to earth, died on a cross, who gave himself ‘to purify for himself’ for himself ‘a people that are his very own. The great and grand plan of God is to have a people of His own. There’s more besides to the plan for sure. He’s going to deal with sin, death and the devil, so that the kingdom of God can be all in all and God can receive glory. All of that is there in the plan but core to all, central to the plan is this purpose, that God would have a people of His own, a people upon whom He can lavish His love.

So, let me pause there. Is that part of your understanding of God? Can you see this overarching purpose within and across the scriptures? And let me get a bit more personal, I don’t want this just to be a lecture for three weeks. Does it move you? Does it move you? As you recognize what you’ve been invited into, does it move you? Because, let’s remember, we don’t deserve this. It’s undeserved because each of us, like Adam and Eve, has told God to take a hike. We’ve told God we know better; we want to live our way, we’ve rebelled. The bible says that’s sin.

So, we don’t deserve this. God wasn’t obliged to include you. God didn’t need to include you and yet He does, He has. Doesn’t that move you at all at the wonder of that?

And maybe you’re sitting there or watching at home and you recognize that you don’t share in that yet. You’ve not said yes to Jesus. Well, this is what you’re missing out on. This great purpose, this great security, this great belonging that God is working out in history and that, one day, that’s all there’s going to be. This great people with God and His new kingdom and, without you choosing to follow Jesus, you’ll miss out on that.

Maybe that’s what needs to move you today to explore that. Is the preacher just mentioning some rubbish, or not? We’ll dig into the Scriptures. Come along to Alpha when it starts up in the autumn term. Explore these things because, maybe you need to be saying yes to Jesus. So, wherever we are on the face journey, I hope that, as we just touch on this, that it moves you, in some shape or form. You might have heard this a million times but I hope you’ve not grown cold too it. I hope it stirs something within you.

So, God has this plan to have a people of His own and it spans the Scriptures both Old Testament and New Testament. But, you know, the words Old Testament and New Testament refer to more than just two halves of the Bible. I think a popular misunderstanding of Old and New Testament is ‘Well, the Old Testament is just the first half of the Bible and the New Testament well, that’s just the other half of the Bible.’ But that’s a popular misunderstanding because, really, those words are chosen because of what those words mean. Because testament in the Greek actually is derived from a word meaning well or covenant, and we find the Bible full of , both old and new covenants. And so, we read it today in Genesis 17 God said ‘As for me, this is my covenant with you. You will be the father of many nations I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you.’ So, God enters into this special relationship with Abraham, a covenant, an agreement and, really, what He’s doing here in chapter 17 is building upon what happened and began in chapter 12, then was given greater detail in chapter 15 and as now you’re given even more detail in chapter 17. It’s all the one covenant made with Abraham but given more detail over those chapters. I encourage you to read them separately later on.

But maybe, you’re wondering ‘Well, what is a covenant, Scott, because you’re using that an awful lot, but I have no idea what it means? Well, again, Wayne Grudem, just to stick with that one book, it says this ‘A covenant is an unchangeable, divinely imposed, legal agreement between God and man that stipulates the conditions of their relationship.’ So a covenant is God setting up a relationship with humanity and He sets the terms and He invites humanity into that and it has legal consequences, both good and negative, and there are actually, in the Old Testament, there are five covenants:
the relationship with Adam that’s set up in Genesis chapter one and two that can be described as a covenant; there is a covenant with Noah; with Abraham as we’ve seen; with Moses; and with David. And some of those covenants stand-alone, like the covenant with Noah, and we give thanks and praise for that covenant because it means, despite our rebellion, across all this world, God is not going to flood the earth again and that’s a good thing, we thank God for that covenant. There are other covenants that become intertwined, like the covenant with Abraham and with David, that they build upon one another. There is also mention in the Scriptures, including in the Old Testament, there is mention of a new covenant. In fact, that’s where it’s first mentioned by the prophet Jeremiah. And so, God says through Jeremiah ‘The days are coming when I will make a new covenant with the people of Israel… this is a covenant I will make with the people of Israel … I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God and they will be my people.’ So, God says a new covenant is coming and it has certain hallmarks. Again, we see that hallmark of being, Him being their God and they being His people. He carries that on, He will also write the law in their hearts and if you look at the surrounding verses, He also says that each person who shares in that new covenant will know God and that their sin will be forgiven and remembered no more. That’s all part of the new covenant that God describes in Jeremiah. But what is striking, what is striking is that all those aspects of the new covenant were there already in the covenant made through Moses, given through Moses and that was building upon the covenant given to Abraham. So, God made a covenant with Abraham and to help bring that to fruition, He made another covenant with Moses, but that covenant with Moses didn’t bring to fruition, that the things that God had promised to Abraham and that’s because the covenant made to Moses did not have power to transform God’s people from the inside-out, it did not change them, they continued to rebel in terrible ways and so, God makes a new covenant to replace the old. And again, Wayne Grudem says this to sum all this up ‘Only the covenant under Moses is called the ‘old covenant’ … to be replaced by the ‘new covenant’ in Christ. The Mosaic covenant was… given for a time to restrain sins and… point people to Christ. So, really only the old covenant is that one given to Moses. So, we had Abraham and then Moses and then David but they all built on one another, but the covenant with Moses did not transform the people, something better was required and so, God promised to bring a new covenant that would replace that covenant with Moses and that new covenant was brought about through Jesus, to transform us from the inside out, to fulfill that initial promise given to Abraham that there would be a people, a people that spanned the nations, and they would know God and relate to God and be God’s people, and share in all His promises. So, God began this purpose in the Old Testament, fulfilled it through Jesus, and we live in the time when it has been worked out in reality.

So, again, let me pause because that was heavy, that was a heavy section and I tried to keep it as short as possible. There are chapters on this stuff, so you’ve got the very condensed version, but let me ask this as we take a moment to catch our breath,
maybe we need to catch our breath quite literally or maybe we should literally have our breath taken away, have our breath taken away by the sweep of God’s plan, have our breath taken away by the intricacy and the interconnectedness of God’s plan, that He has been working out for thousands of years, across all these different people and yet, they speak with one voice and with one purpose, that there’s this thread, through all that, God has a plan to have a people of His own and that plan has been out worked now through Jesus and all who will follow Him and that is what you are caught up in if you claim to be a Christian, if you claim to be a Christian, if you said yes to Jesus if, whether at home, in your heart or last week with a piece of Lego saying yes, if you said yes to Jesus this is what you are caught up in, brothers and sisters, this is what you’re caught up in. We are not about keeping the lights on in the building. We are not about keeping a charity on the go. We are not about being religious or being more moral than we once were, or be more moral than our neighbors. We’re not about any of that. We’re about God’s purpose to be His people and invite others into that and, if it doesn’t take your breath away, I don’t know what else will because that’s incredible, incredible. you are part of God’s great and gracious plan and that’s amazing because it’s undeserved and all of love, all of love. But, you know, when we start thinking about this plan and we start thinking about how it relates to our lives, as I said in the prayer, we can turn it very inward because, as a culture, we’re very individualistic and that can make us often very selfish, and we can do that with our faith, but God’s covenant with Abraham included others. In Genesis 12 Ne mentions ‘the nations and in Genesis 17 He mentions ‘children. So, we read earlier that God said to Abraham ‘As for you, you must keep my covenant, you and your descendants after you, for the generations to come, every male among you ‘shall be circumcised, you are to undergo circumcision and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and you.’ So, God establishes this covenant, this binding legal agreement, this way of relating between God and His people, and children are included, from infancy, they are part of the covenant community, they share in the covenant promises and as a sign to remind them of these promises, they’re given circumcision to point towards that covenant, and we’ll think more about baptism next week. But, for now, let’s note that the Jewish people, across the centuries, and up to and including the Jews in Jesus day, saw children as sharing in the covenant community, sharing in the covenant promises, both the blessings and the repercussions of that, and so, when Peter stands up on the Day of Pentecost and the church is birthed and has this great speech and 3000 people and more pile in to say ‘Yes, I’m following Jesus!’ he has a couple of very interesting lines. He says this ‘Repent and be baptized every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off, for all whom the Lord our God will call.’ Peter speaks of ‘the promise’, ‘the promise’. He might be referring to the promise simply made through Joel who he quotes earlier on in that passage but even if he’s only referring to that particular promise, that particular prophecy, that prophecy tells of things that are part of the new covenant and, as we saw, the new covenant builds on the covenant made with Abraham, a covenant which included children and so, in Peter’s understanding, children are included under the new covenant as well and it’s natural for him to do that, as it would be for any Jew listening to his speech, because the old covenant included children too.

And it’s carried on into the rest of the New Testament because not once in all of the New Testament are the place of children questioned. They’re encouraged to heed teaching and to grow in faith. They are addressed as members of the church but they’re never questioned, their place is never questioned. There are many other questions and raised and answered. For example, dietary requirements, the dietary requirements of the Old Testament, they’re lifted, they’re done away with, and that’s noted. That the priesthood and the sacrificial system, that’s done away with through Jesus, and that’s noted. The requirement to be circumcised to ensure that you were saved well that’s rejected, and it’s noted. That now both males and females are given a covenant sign, baptism, well that’s a change and that’s noted. But what’s never questioned, never written about, the place of children, the inclusion of children, because God, in His plan cares for and welcomes the children of His people.

Now this is going to raise a lot of questions for some of us. Some of us will already be going to questions like ‘Does that mean children are saved?’ and ‘What about the place of faith? salvation comes by faith in Jesus alone. An infant can’t have faith. So, what about the place of faith?’ and ‘What happens if someone has been baptized, as an infant, but drifts away from the faith? What then, what do we understand then?’

Well, I’m afraid time’s up! And so. I’m going to have to come to those questions in the next two weeks, but I’m not going to try and duck them, I want to try and wrestle with them because I know some of you will be asking them. Yet, for now, let’s note what we’ve surveyed so far and what Peter says the promise is for you and your children. God’s plan includes you and your children, such is His goodness and grace. It was a plan conceived by the Trinity, an eternity passed amongst the persons of the Godhead and They chose to make it known through the various covenants that God made with His people across the centuries, until it was finally fulfilled and secured through Jesus in the new covenant and proclaimed now by the church in His name. And, I wonder if God is raising this up for us now, not simply because the Kirk Session asked a question, but because He wants us to wrestle with this afresh, to maybe understand afresh, maybe even for the first time, to understand something of His purpose and plan, something of His provision for salvation and maybe, within that, we’ve got to allow the breadth of Scripture to shape our thinking and understanding more than we’ve ever done before, so that it might deepen our confidence and fuel our passion. I pray it may be so. Amen.